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Ovarian cancer is a kind of cancer involving the ovarian tissue. Two almond-shaped bean-sized ovaries are located in the lower part of the abdomen, in fact, in the middle of the back. They are  responsible for producing an important part of dual reproduction, such as eggs and female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Ovarian cancer in general it can be referred to as a sort of disease, but at the same time, it is a type of those which are pervaded with various particularities, factors to take preventive measures, and the spectrum of the possible consequences. The various types of ovarian tumors should to the point where the correct identification, handling, and management of disease be understood.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

It originates from the epithelial cells manifested generally on a depressed lining inside the reproductive organs. A plethora of antibodies cell contain the following several epithelial cancer types, such as:

a. Serous Carcinoma: It is non facetious to say that despite the fact that a patient might be responsively treated by passing though the first line of chemotherapy which might extend their survival periods, there is an urgency behind finding more targeted therapies (especially those dependent on the molecular subtypes) that would result in higher efficacy of the treatment and lower risk of recurrence.

This type of cancer is divided also into two groups with high grade and low grade cells.

b. Endometrioid Carcinoma: This specific subtype comprises nearly 10% of epithelial carcinomas and there is a relation between endometriosis (the disorder with endometrium that grows beyond the uterus.

c. Clear Cell Carcinoma: This subtype, accounting for approximately 5% of all epithelial ovarian cancers, is recognized by the pathologist as the presence of clear, pale material or cells under the microscope.

d. Mucinous Carcinoma: The most uncommon subtype is transcribed as g2/g3 phenotype, which accounts for approximately 3% of the overall epithelial ovarian cancers. This type of adenocarcinoma mainly arises from the cells that are the whites of the body fluid mucus.

Germ Cell Tumors

Germinoma is a collection of cancers comprising about three percent of all ovarian cancer types and is evolution from the cells that create the eggs called ova. Benign and malignant tumors occur in both cases. Common types of germ cell tumors include:

a. Dysgerminoma: This happens most frequently among mature teratoma and majority of the cases is found in people who are below 40, especially young women.

b. Teratoma: Likewise, teratomas have both benign and malignant types of cells which normalize those found in tooth, hair or skin cells.

c. Endodermal Sinus Tumor (Yolk Sac Tumor): Such a tumor is extremely forceful, and the proliferation leads to the situation in which the whole uterus becomes occupied when the cancer progresses.

Stromal Tumors

Stromal tumors originate from stroma cells, and are located between the ovarian muscles. They rarely happen (that is they account only for approximately 1% of all ovarian cancers). Examples of stromal tumors include:

a. Granulosa Cell Tumor: It is stored in particular cells inside the ovaries - so that they can produce estrogen and progesterone.

b. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor (Androblastoma): At this stage, cells can be seen which produce normal male sex hormones (androgens) locally in the ovaries and can turn into malignant tumors.

c. Gynandroblastoma: It is very very uncommon and comprises the type of cells often seen in granulosa tumors as well as those involved in Sertoli-Leydig.

Peritoneal Cancer

Depending on the origin from the peritoneum, is a rare type of cancer that originates from the peritoneum, the thin layer that covers the organs within the abdomen and lines the inside of the hermetically sealed abdomen. Although not ovarian cancer by its technical meaning, peritoneal cancer is in many instances treated the same way as epithelial ovarian cancer due to the fact that it resembles epithelial ovarian cancer in a majority of respects and acts similarly.

Keeping in mind that such types of ovarian cancer demonstrate certain similarities among themselves, every variety of this tumor has particular features, factors of its etiology, and methods of rendering medical aid. The Best cancer hospital in India opines that correct diagnosis, which is clinically aiming at identification of some particular type of ovarian cancer, pertains to making the right choice of treatment and improving patients' outcome.

An oncologist is the expert in this field and the best person to give everyone the needed advice according to the specific type of tumor. Furthermore, planning and putting organization in treatment is equally as important. Furthermore, the support from ovarian cancer support groups or organizations can be a valuable resource and emotional support for you through the whole journey.

Adequate Diagnosis and Risk Identification

The single most important factor is diagnosis at an early stage that can give better answers to many treatments and survival rates in ovarian cancer. However, ovarian cancer may remain concealed when the early disease stages may show vague symptoms which can be easily confused with those of other conditions. Symptoms can include belly bloating, pelvic pain, and sometimes frequent urges or having to urinate often.

Etiology (the causes of a certain disease) of ovarian cancer has not been done yet precisely, however, critical pieces of information (that individuals are at increased risk) related to reliability are always known. These include age (the older the woman gets, likely, the higher would be the risk), family history of cancer of ovary or breast, inherited genetic defects like BRCA1 and BRCA2, obesity, and reproductive factors like never being pregnant or taking fertility treatments.

Prevention and Screening

Unfortunately, there is no means to avoid or cure the disease, but there are a few methods that seem to be able to reduce the risk. These are even aspects like: keeping fit and healthy, avoiding hormone therapy if possible, and thinking over risk-reducing surgery (for example removing ovaries and fallopian tubes) for women who are at a high risk due to genetic mutations or a strong family background.

Ovarian cancer screening is currently not a recommended intervention for women at low risk. Due to the fact that the use of screening tests (vaginal ultrasound and capillary blood CA-125 test) failed to prove any benefit in reducing ovarian cancer mortality rate. As of now, screening is generally not prescribed for common women but it is recommended for women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer, such as those with a strong family history or known genetic mutations.

Continued Research and Human Studies

The Best ayurvedic cancer treatment in India opines that although the quest to identify, provide the  early diagnosis, cure and prevention of ovarian cancer is still ongoing, researchers keep finding and experimenting with new methods. Clinical studies are of paramount importance, as they allow us to test innovative drugs, effective treatments and target therapies that are designed to interact with certain elements of the tumor cells only. Joining clinical trials brings both new treatment strategies and the development of ovarian cancer research to the battle.

When you stay updated regarding the new developments and collaborating with your care team to help you decide on the most appropriate action will be based on the severity and type of ovarian cancer that is affecting you as an individual.